Integrative 3D Geological Modeling Derived from SWIR Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques and UAV-Based 3D Model for Carbonate Rocks

Huy Hoa Huynh, Jaehung Yu, Lei Wang, Nam Hoon Kim, Bum Han Lee, Sang-Mo Koh, Sehyun Cho, Trung Hieu Pham

Abstract
This paper demonstrates an integrative 3D model of short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral mapping and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based digital elevation model (DEM) for a carbonate rock outcrop including limestone and dolostone in a field condition. The spectral characteristics in the target outcrop showed the limestone well coincided with the reference spectra, while the dolostone did not show clear absorption features compared to the reference spectra, indicating a mixture of clay minerals. The spectral indices based on SWIR hyperspectral images were derived for limestone and dolostone using aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), hydroxide (OH), iron hydroxide (FeOH), magnesium hydroxide (MgOH) and carbonate ion (CO32−) absorption features based on random forest and logistic regression models with an accuracy over 87%. Given that the indices were derived from field data with consideration of commonly occurring geological units, the indices have better applicability for real world cases. The integrative 3D geological model developed by co-registration between hyperspectral map and UAV-based DEM using best matching SIFT descriptor pairs showed the 3D rock formations between limestone and dolostone. Moreover, additional geological information of the outcrop was extracted including thickness, slope, rock classification, strike, and dip.

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